Eye Basics and Anatomy

Have you ever been to the doctor and learned about a certain part of your health, only to get home and forget what you learned?!  It happens to us all.  Next time you cannot recall information about your eye you can come here and find the answers.


Transparent front surface of the eye that covers the iris and pupil.

The cornea provides most of the eyes power to bend light.


Circular opening in the center of the iris that can change size depending on lighting and visual demands.

The pupil regulates the amount of light that enters the eye.



  • The colored portion of the eye.
  • The iris controls the size of the pupil to regulate the light entering the eye.
  • The iris also forms the separation between the anterior and posterior chambers


  • Transparent tissue located behind the iris that changes shape to focus light on the retina


  • Layer lining the inside of the back portion of the eye where vision begins.
  • Light hitting the retina is sent to the brain and converted to vision
  • Consists of both rods and cones


  • Central area of the retina that is responsible for acute central vision
  • Composed almost exclusively of cones


  • Transparent, jelly-like mass that fills the posterior segment of the eyeball
  • Maintains the shape of the eye

Optic Nerve

  • Carries impulses to and from the brain and retina


  • Protective white layer of the eye
  • Fibrous outer layer

Ciliary Body

  • Muscular ring responsible for changing the shape of the lens of the eye to focus light on the retina


  • Vascular layer between the sclera and retina
  • Supplies blood vessels to nourish the layers of the eye